Society Religion and Spirituality

Building of Medieval Cathedrals Built

Medieval Cathedrals were monumental religious structures found at Canterbury, and in other major cities in London. They were a symbol of affluence, being built with a vast amount of wealth. Money used came from people through various payments they made to the Roman Catholic Church. The driving force for building these magnificent structures was for the glory of God.

Like other structures, the starting point was for a qualified architecture to be found who would design a basic plan. They would select the best craftsmen to employ, they were highly skilled men perfect for work. i.e. Quarrymen, stone cutters, sculptors, mortar makers, carpenters, blacksmiths, roofers, masons, and glassmakers. Each worker was to run their workshops for their trade. Craftsmen would not do any laboring, rather laboring was done by unskilled laborers who lived near to where it was built.

A body was there to govern

All craftsmen relied on one another to get jobs done, blacksmiths made all-metal tools required while the carpenters made wooden handles for these tools therefore showing their co-relation. Tools were not that big since the technology was not as advanced back then. Some of them were: ax, hammer, bit, sled hammer, chisel, auger, plane, and mathematical divider. All were easy to operate hence did not require special skills.

A body was there to govern the architecture of the cathedral, it was called a chapter. It regulated the amount of money that was used during the building process and also approved the final design that was sketched. The chapter gave orders to architects on what was considered to be best for the building procedures.

Building of Medieval Cathedrals Built

Upon the decision of the plan was made, the work was immediately started. The laborers started with a foundation like every other building is and was done. At Canterbury Cathedral, recent renovation work showed that the famous cathedral was built over the original cathedral at Canterbury, i.e. the old cathedral became part of the foundations of the new one. Back then, foundations could go as much as twenty-five feet deep underground making all structures above very stable and last a very long time. It required skills since a slight mistake or error would lead to weak walls above the ground.

As the foundation was being built, the craftspeople worked in quarries to get huge stones that were to be used. Laborers helped to get stones from quarries since the craftsmen were not doing heavy lifting jobs. All other skilled craftsmen had laborers assigned to them to help them pursue their duties. Stones were curved and marked to a specified shape before being taken to the building area. Shapes would help them to align them with ease.

Constructing Cathedrals took years to complete since they were made bigger than castles and also technology was not advanced during those days. They were symbolic of their huge importance to a medieval society where religion was key in society. Other decorations were done further after the construction was done, like sculpting, roofing, and installation of frescoes. In parallel, as architectural technology developed further, greater expanses of glass became possible. Glass, afterward, replaced frescoes as a decoration to portray religious scenes.

The Significance Of The Chartres Cathedral to modern architecture

The town of Chartres of strict significance since antiquated occasions. It was site of Druid services, which were held around a well that was later found under the church building sepulcher. At some point later, a Gallo Roman sanctuary remained on a similar spot. The early Christians raised a basilica there during fourth century, and St. Bernard lectured Second Crusade there in 1146. Later ever, Chartres was crowning celebration site of Henry IV in 1594.

Devoted to Notre-Dame (Our Lady), Chartres Cathedral procured solid relationship with faction of the Virgin. Later archaic demand that Christianity came to Chartres as right on time as first AD was bound up with nearby legends zeroed in on faction. It was affirmed that in druidical times Chartres was the focal point of a prophetic faction gave to ‘a Virgin who will conceive an offspring’, and there was a marvelous sculpture to demonstrate it. Different parts in legend were a well in the grave of church building, which was purified by the remaining parts of saints who were tossed into it, and the presence of Virgin’s tunic.

The huge church is crafted by

The story was explained throughout the long term, however it prospered especially during the late Middle Ages and during Baroque time frame, when it was effectively intertwined with picture of church building itself. Overall, the structure dates from thirteenth centu the magnificent enduring segments of the basilica’s twelfth century west front are the old chime tower, with its 338-foot impeccable tower, alongside the Royal Doorway and its eminent windows.

The huge church is crafted by an obscure ace worked to oblige huge quantities of admirers, high Gothic house of God highlights substitute barrel shaped and octagonal segments, sanely planned flying braces vaults that take off to 121 feet. Somewhere in the range of 1507 and 1513, Jean Texier manufactured another chime tower. That 367-foot tower highlights ribbon like stonework in ostentatious style of a later age.

Chartres was primary basilica to utilize

At that point, starting in 1514, French experts of the Renaissance and time of style cut ensemble screen, which shows the lives of the Virgin Mary, Christ. Great Organ, involving a fifteenth space, was reestablished totally in 1971. That old style contemporary instrument is highlight of Sunday summer shows. House of God at Chartres was main locales to be remembered for the Unesco rundown of world legacy in 1979. It is viewed as one of the extraordinary magnum opuses of Gothic engineering.

Chartres was primary basilica to utilize flying braces broadly at the hour of its structure, it had tallest rooftop in Western world (around 38 meters). In contrast to most archaic basilicas, Chartres Cathedral was quickly finished to a solitary arrangement in the mid thirteenth century. Dissimilar to practically all other archaic houses of prayer, it has never been fundamentally reconstructed or broadened (other than its sixteenth century second tower). Its 176 unique recolored glass windows are the most complete arrangement of middle age recolored glass on the planet.

The Significance Of The Chartres Cathedral to modern architecture

The church building is accepted to be fifth on the site. Town of Chartres, 50 miles south-west of Paris, was one of extraordinary focuses of archaic learning, some time before colleges were made. In the tenth century, it became, and still is, a significant spot of Catholic journey with securing of a scriptural relic a “shroud” said to been worn by Mary during time of Jesus.

As Malcolm clarifies, windows on house of prayer’s more obscure north side component Old Testament topics anticipating the light of Christ’s appearance. Windows on the more splendid south side delineate uplifting news of New Testament. Peruse Chartres’ windows in the middle age style: from base to top. A window close to passage to pinnacle recounts the tale of Noah and the flood. In the base jewel God reveals to Noah he’ll obliterate the earth. Ensuing sheets show Noah fabricating ark, stacking creatures, waves covering the earth suffocating insidious, and Noah delivering a bird. Close to the top is a rainbow, representing God’s guarantee never to bring another flood.

Outside, sculptures on south yard show Christianity’s victories over mistreatment on the middle entryway, Jesus brings his arm up in gift, while stomping on a monster and lion images of evil underneath. Underneath Christ, spirits are judged, the honest on one side, and the devilish, who are tossed into the searing jaws of heck, on other.

The Origin And Use Of The Flying Buttress

A buttress refers to an architectural construction on the outside of a building to provide support to the walls. The original buttress was attached on the wall all the way to the top. When the buttress was detached from the wall, it formed an arch to connect with the top of the wall, it appeared to be soaring or flying. This soaring appearance is what led to the name of the flying buttress. Arc-boutant is a French term used to refer to this type of buttressing and provides a more accurate description of the structure since it means thrust through the arch. Some buildings got several buttresses providing an enhanced flying effect as well as making it possible to create larger open areas on taller structures such as early cathedrals.

It is unclear where the origin of the flying buttress comes from. For many centuries, architectural design, particularly the one involved in religious structures, have pursued dramatic safe enclosed interior areas. In the early Byzantine and Roman constructions, engineers used buttresses but masked the stonework from plain view. During the Gothic architecture era, the use of buttresses was embraced as decorative and started showing up in cathedrals. The buttresses not only offered a spiritual building marvel, but they also allowed masons to add windows to unusually heavy walls.

Regardless of its origin, the flying

Between the 12th and 13th centuries, Engineers allowed the construction of huge architectures. The use of Gothic arcs, the rib vaults, and flying buttressing was utilized to provide solutions to provisions of natural light in structures taller than usual. Among the earliest buildings to receive this feature is the Abbey of Saint-Denis, constructed in Paris 1135 to 1144. From a simple look at the history of this structure in architecture, it is easy to see the domination of France in constructing these flying support structure.

Regardless of its origin, the flying buttress has become popular in different countries. It has been incorporated in many ancient as well as modern architectural structures to provide the same solutions. One of the most notable constructions to utilize the flying buttress is the Notre Dame in Paris which was started in 1163 and completed in 1345. These flying buttresses were also used in the Duomo in Milan, Saint Chapelle in Paris, as well as other cathedrals in Amiens, Reims, and London.

The Origin And Use Of The Flying Buttress

Though the initial aim of buttressing was to provide support to the heavy load walls and allow windows, with time, they became decorative. As the style became popular, the builders in different towns in France started competing to go higher. Their target was to construct taller structural marvels that were safer by reducing the load through the use of glass. This explains the large stained-glass windows that have become synonymous with ancient cathedrals. Without buttressing, taller structures were dealt with cracking and collapsing. The buttress was used to salvage buildings through support similar to that offered by temporary shoring used on incomplete buildings.

Today, buttressing is still in use in different modern constructions. Engineers use these ancient support systems on buildings to retain walls or in supporting dam walls.

If churches are commercial buildings

Any building that is built to generate income for the owner is generally known as a commercial building, those buildings are properties. A church is considered a special kind of building, but according to the government rules it is a residential property. This makes it a commercial building until the church decides to buy a piece of land, to build it there to make it their personal property. A rental place where people gather from time to time to worship, while getting together may seem like an organization that is supported by the government. Of course, the churches are supported because of the culture they enforce that adjusts the behavior of everybody within the community to make people better. Those religion centers mold the area where church serves individuals by criticizing and standing firmly against ways that are bad or may lead to vices.

They seem like small centers, but

They seem like small centers, but in real sense help the government in molding individuals. Rates of drug abuse, and theft usually go down in areas where there are a lot of places of worship because the places are against such behavior. When somebody goes through the hardships of life they are usually advised to go and talk to the religious leaders who most of the time have an experience in such. Some were involved in the same issues back in their days, or may have heard or seen people who have gone through the same thing in life. The society rely on them completely on guiding the young men and women who are starting to understand the difficult ways of life, who do not open to people easily. Everyone appreciates the effort, and fact that the religious leaders can be trusted since they mostly keep the secrets of their congregation.

If churches are commercial buildings

This brought the debating issue that church buildings, and other religious places should be given a break from being put as a commercial building. The places serve others, and the surrounding community more than it would work to apprehend themselves, or benefit themselves. Their assumed commercial services are actually benefiting those who are around it without payment for the services that commit themselves to do. Earlier, those places were declared a special group in commercial buildings, and residential properties because of the stated argument. That could help in reducing the land and rental rates of tax as a way of repaying for their whole commitment in giving their services to others. This makes them pursue more in getting the area that a person stays into molding everybody there to become good, even give them a career talk.

The challenge comes when you have to decide for yourself on where to put them because you have seen how they serve, and most of the time do not ask for payment. That would definitely differ with the fact that commercial buildings are supposed to gain from the society so it can pay the owner. Probably, the definition of placing them on special commercial buildings is a take it for people. Not to forget that they are not for free, whether special or not, they have to pay rent.

How to determine the lifespan of a building

The question “what is the lifespan of a building”?, Only depends on how it is built. And this is the question that most landlords and homeowners ask. According to experts, the lifespan of any building whatsoever, depends on several factors, which are found in the modern structures of recent. To really determine a building’s lifetime, a person should take a look at the buildings built since the year 2000, up until now.

First, a person should know the

First, a person should know the difference between a temporary building, and a permanent one. Then, they can determine or expect to see an economic lifespan, especially when built with the right materials. Some structures or structures, have limited lifespans, especially the temporal structures that are built to serve an urgent purpose. Other buildings that are considered to be more permanent than the temporary ones, are expected to have a design that will allow up-to 80 years of erection.

How to determine the lifespan of a building

Also, other factors that influence the lifespan of buildings are, cost of investment, and the purpose or reason why it is built (note, it’s really important). The cost of building a house, company, school, hospital, military centers, or even a worship center, will definitely determine how long that structure will last. If a man decides to just build a house with cheap materials and lesser funds, he shouldn’t expect his house to last for long, compared to another person that builds his house with quality materials, and huge funds. It’s even worse, when a building is demolished for other purposes, like rebuilding, or for creating a path for future improvements, that will certainly reduce its lifetime (the rebuilt structure). This is really a simple theory, a building that was designed to last for 100 years, can never have the same materials, tools, and equipment, as the buildings designed to last for 200 years, and upwards.

Finally, another key-factor that many builders should understand is that, the purpose of building anything, will reflect how long it will last. For example, if you build a worship center, like a church or mosque, you should expect it to live over 200 years. So, before deciding or concluding to build a church, bank, mosque, school, or any other structure, there should be an expected lifespan for such structure. Unlike the religious centers, the residential buildings can’t last compared to the worship centers. A house (a residential building), is expected to last for about 80 years. While schools, banks, and military sites, are expected to last for a century.

So, before a person starts complaining about the demolishing of his structure, the materials used are to be blamed. This factor will assure new homemakers that their homes, offices, or schools, won’t give them problems later in the future. So, the determination or knowledge of how long a structure will last, is already gotten. If the right equipment are used, the purpose of structuring is in mind, and with the perfect location for siting, then a school, office, or home, can last for the expected time.

The reasons for the high ceilings of churches

Religion is never something to joke about as the faith of various people are on the line, there are lots of religious groups in existence with various beliefs, this stems from the fact that there are various countries that have different cultures. Through it all, some major religions have stood tall and have lots of people practicing them. One is the Islamic religion where the number 1 person who is thought to have introduced it is Mohammed. Persons who believe in Allah worship daily in mosques as they bow to pray to their God.

There exist Buddhism which mainly preaches

There exist Buddhism which mainly preaches about enlightenment, this is viewed widely known to be that change is constant and that it could happen at any time. Through such periods, Buddhist are known to practice good morality, meditate and show wisdom. Christianity till date is still the biggest and popular of all religions where those who practice it are called Christians. The belief is that there is only one God and all who believe in him will spend the afterlife in heaven. Believing in God means to live right with good morals while obeying the 12 commandments written in the bible.

The reasons for the high ceilings of churches

Christians are known to gather in churches for worship where their faith are strengthened with preachings from a pastor or leader. The church is usually built in such a way that would allow enough congregation to be in attendance. Now the focus has been seen that church ceilings are regularly high up and people reason why this could be so. There are various reasons why the ceilings of a church might be high, the first starts with spaciousness which makes the congregation have a feeling of freedom that they can move around while praying or singing.

Another reason for the high ceiling in churches is the fact that the utilities or functions necessary for the building might lead to this. For example, machines like speakers might need to be placed in strategic places for good sound quality and the high ceiling would give space for the sound to propagate properly. Ventilation is the last reason for this as air must flow properly to all in the congregation. It wouldn’t be of any good reason for people to come in to worship and the heat would be a main cause of distraction. With all the reasons given, you should not be surprised when a church has to make its ceiling much higher than normal buildings.

The Evolution of Architecture During the Middle Ages

Architecture is mostly concerned with the planning and designing of housing structures. Architects are behind every state-of-the-art structure be it a bridge, stadium, event center, or just a normal residential apartment. Their job is to design and supervise the work to ensure the structural engineers built just as designed. There are no countries on earth you won’t find architects in fact; the study of architecture has become a major course in most institutions. If you look back as far as the 15th century you’ll probably notice a lot has changed when it comes to architectural designs. There wasn’t any much attention to scrutinize architectural designs and ensure they meet required standards until around the early 90s.

The collapse of Ibrox stadium 2-years

The collapse of Ibrox stadium 2-years after it was constructed in Glasgow during the match between England and Scotland in April 1902 was a turning point in architectural designs. Before then, there were series of causalities across different nations of the earth due to the collapse of buildings.

Some incidences occurred because of poor construction, unskilled contractors, use of low-quality materials, and several others. Much of the blame was associated with poor designs or follow up to ensure what was on paper was the exact structure on the ground. Most deadly causalities ever recorded in human history came from the collapse of architectural works.

The Evolution of Architecture During the Middle Ages

The mid 21st century was the beginning of architectural change across different nations. Having seen the consequences or damages caused by poor constructions due to failure on the part of architects, there was a need to review the entire system. The job of an architect was no longer given to any unskilled person to qualify as a reputable architect you’ll have to undertake several years of studies. Apart from that, you need to show proof of your past jobs and possibly get recommendations from experts to allow you to take any major project.

With the implementation of stringent measures, architects and structural engineers had to upgrade their performance. To get a single construction contract may some times take place once in a year. This implies you need to put in more than your best to construct or design a structure that will stand the test of time. Some of the early structures were not that solid, most of them got affected even by the smallest of earth tremors. Areas mostly affected were Europe, America with Japan having one of the highest records.

The middle ages had some unique characteristics like structures that were built. Some had large arches with circular shapes, others were designed using stainless glasses. The windows were little enlarged to allow for adequate ventilation especially during summer. Stainless glass was a major innovation during the middle age period, it was meant to reduce the cost of the building. Taller structures like skyscrapers and other complicate designs were some major changes that took place. But, most individuals with a phobia for height went for houses with smaller windows. Architects had a new approach to building and construction with a particular interest in the safety of users alongside nearby residents.